Undigested trehalose arriving in the colon also causes an osmotic gradient leading toward loose stools and diarrhea followed by the digestion of trehalose by the micro flora in the colon, producing gases (particularly hydrogen and methane, appearing in the exhaled air) (1). Trehalase is shorter than the other disaccharidases and has only one catalytic site to hydrolyze the α-1, 1 linkage between glucose molecules in trehalose. Sheer NO It is still unclear how variable the duodenal trehalase activity may be in the human population; however, studies and Eskimos in Greenland and and people in Finland have identified both self-proclaimed mushroom-intolerant and trehalase-deficient individuals. Pancreatic α-amylase acts mostly in the duodenum shortly after its entry through the hepatopancreatic sphincter and generates maltose, maltotriose, and α-limit dextrins from complex carbohydrates (6). Sucrase-isomaltase and β-glycosidase have a high distribution and activity in the proximal jejunum, whereas glucoamylase has its highest activity in the proximal ileum (9). Thus, the spatial distribution of these disaccharidases (little activity in the duodenum and distal ileum and none in the large intestine) maximizes their activity to coordinate and the segments of the small intestine where glucose transporters predominate (4). These disaccharidases thus contribute to the phenomenon known as membrane digestion and provide monosaccharide’s for absorption across epithelial cells. Once monosaccharide’s result from the digestion of carbohydrates by α-amylase and the brush-border membrane enzymes, the monosaccharides are taken up by the entrecotes via specific transport proteins that facilitate the transport of the D-isomers (but not L-isomers) of hexodes (4).
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